physical education Curriculum

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Overview: The PE program at Cascade Canyon balances instruction in teamwork, coordination, skill building, game playing, body awareness, and overall fitness. As students progress through PE, K-8, they develop the essential skill of good sportsmanship, the techniques and strategies used to play a range of sports, and the ability to set and achieve personal fitness goals. Cascade Canyon students meet twice a week for PE. Classes are forty-five minutes each.

Kindergarten PE

Excerpts from the California Physical Education Framework.:

Kindergarten

"Children at this stage are solo learners. They focus primarily on moving within space, including the general space around them and their own personal space. Nonlocomotor skills include how the body moves on its axis, and locomotor skills include moving in general space. Once the children are able to move effectively in their space, they focus on objects – for example, equipment, supplies, and materials. They also learn about and interpret their environment through play...Basically ego-oriented, children in kindergarten tend to play alone in their own space. They are focused on themselves in the present. However, they also begin to recognize the concept of self and others; acknowledge that others may occupy their space; learn to move about in their space without interfering with other; and begin to learn to take turns and share in interaction with others. Children at this stage generally do not understand the purpose of rules but will follow rules delivered by adults."

1st Grade

"Through movement experiences first graders develop an awareness of the concepts of space, time, and effort. These experiences should include many opportunities for children to feel the joy that results from having the ability and freedom to explore, discover, and express themselves through movement.

As they continue motor learning, first graders accept challenges to move through space with the added dimensions of time and effort, such as fast-slow and strong-weak. Direction in movement is introduced along with basic eye-hand and eye-foot manipulative skills. Locomotor activities include hopping on the nonpreferred foot; galloping on the nonpreferred foot; and marching, sliding and performing other patterns according to specific rhythms.

First graders participate in parallel play with other students and tend to be more involved in individual activities than in interactions with others. They continue to learn in groups but participate as individuals."

Course Objectives

Skills: Running, jumping, rolling, skipping, hopping; responding to verbal directions; cooperative group/team play skills, dancing, basic object manipulation skills

Concepts: The health benefits of physical activity, the role of practice in learning new skills; an introduction to group games and partner work; the role of the individual in maintaining safety in group and individual games; fairness in play

Themes:

- working together
- safety
- respect for self & others

Essential Questions:

- When do you get along with other people?

- How does what you say make your classmates feel? Are there things you can say to make them feel happy? Are there things that you say that make them feel bad?

- How do you keep yourself safe?

- Why are there rules?

- Do you play safely - how? Do you keep a "bubble" around you at all times? Do you look where you're going even before you change direction? Do you use a gentle body?

- What kinds of things do you do that are good for you?

First and Second Grade PE

Excerpts from the California Physical Education Framework.:

1st Grade

"Through movement experiences first graders develop an awareness of the concepts of space, time, and effort. These experiences should include many opportunities for children to feel the joy that results from having the ability and freedom to explore, discover, and express themselves through movement.

As they continue motor learning, first graders accept challenges to move through space with the added dimensions of time and effort, such as fast-slow and strong-weak. Direction in movement is introduced along with basic eye-hand and eye-foot manipulative skills. Locomotor activities include hopping on the nonpreferred foot; galloping on the nonpreferred foot; and marching, sliding and performing other patterns according to specific rhythms.

First graders participate in parallel play with other students and tend to be more involved in individual activities than in interactions with others. They continue to learn in groups but participate as individuals."

2nd Grade

"At this stage students explore movement patterns with a partner to define movement in relation to another person, shape, or group. They learn by continuing to experience a variety of modalities. Since the students are highly flexible in interacting with partners, activities encourage changes of partners. In the application of rules, fairness at this stage is flexible, and children are likely to make up their own rules as they play together.

...In grade two children learn more about relationships between themselves and others...The children are able to celebrate the successes of others and begin to recognize specific activities that contribute to feelings of joy and movement experiences that rely on cooperation. They consistently practice sharing and caring skills when playing with partners in movement activities and reinforce one another by giving and receiving encouragement.

Course Objectives

Skills: Movement skills going under, around, to the side of objects, manipulating objects alone or with a partner, participating in sustained large-group games to increase heart and lung functioning, using equipment properly, learn to use equipment appropriately, moving with increasing agility, balance and control; hand-eye and foot-eye coordination; increased endurance through running, sprinting, and tag games, taking responsibility for role in group games.

Concepts: Using feedback to improve performance, the purpose of rules in games, the role of activities in developing strength and endurance, develop responsibility for expected behaviors on the playground and in class, strategy in game playing, understand role of strength exercises in fitness; understanding the role of competition and cooperation in team play (when developmentally ready)

Themes:

- working together
- safety
- respect for self & others

Essential Questions:

- When do you get along with other people?
- How does what you say affect others?
- How do you keep yourself safe?
- Why are there rules?
- How does what you do impact your classmates safety?
- What kinds of things do you do that are good for you?

Activities:

Team Building Activities
Large Group Games
Throwing (Frisbees, foam balls)
Kicking (Soccer, lead up games to kickball)
Hitting (scoops and balls, table tennis)
Dribbling (Basketballs)
Creative Movement
International Games

Third and Fourth Grade PE

Excerpts from the California Physical Education Framework.

3rd Grade

"Third grade is a pivotal time in the development of students' movement skills. Third-graders who demonstrate and understand the proper form for locomotor and nonlocomotor skills now shift their focus to combining those skills into new movement sequences. Students who cannot perform the skills using the proper technique are provided with additional learning and practice opportunities to improve these skills.
Third-grade students are willing to experiment with and explore alternative movements, such as tumbling, creative dance, and formal dance. Practice opportunities provide students with sufficient time to develop the proper form for manipulative skills, such as rolling, throwing, catching, dribbling, kicking, and striking. Fitness activities become increasingly important at this age. Early signs of poor posture and decreased flexibility begin to appear. Giving students opportunities to participate in moderate to vigorous physical activities for three to four days each week can increase overall health. "

"Third-graders, like second-graders, are at the concrete stage of cognitive development. Their attention spans are improving, and they are interested in why things occur. These students are fairly good at the use of inductive logic that involves going from a specific experience to a general experience. On the other hand, students at this age have difficulty using deductive logic, which involves using a general idea to determine the outcome of a specific event. "

"By now students have developed a self-image strong enough to tolerate how others react to them. They have developed a stronger sense of right and wrong, having reached the stage of development for internalization of rules and regulations. They are becoming more self-reliant and can work independently. Third grade is a good time to have students create goals for personal fitness and motor skills and monitor their own progress, because they have a strong desire for self-improvement. These students also experience an increased desire for interaction with others and should be provided with opportunities to practice and work toward common goals in pairs and trios."

4th Grade

"Fourth graders are at a stage between childhood and youth during which they are growing in definite patterns. Eye-hand coordination is improved, and fine-motor activities are becoming more skillful. In addition, the greatest gain in strength begins at this stage. Students have mastered many locomotor and nonlocomotor skills and are able to manipulate objects in a variety of ways. They can create a game, for example, when they are given an object and encouraged to play. Physiologically, while they are standing, their center of gravity is still located in the midsections of the body, making balance and manipulation of objects a challenge. Fourth graders are likely to test rules during play and challenge how rules apply to them. Further, they tend to regard rules as rigid and prescriptive. When exceptions to the rules have to be made, the logic and rationale of the rules should be emphasized."

"In motor development students at this level are able to focus on refining their skills in comparison with proficiency standards. They begin to use space and distance appropriately as they progress toward accuracy in throwing, catching, manipulating the body in space, and striking with body parts and objects."

"At this level students are ready to cope with success and failure and are more perceptive and accepting of similarities and differences. This is also a time for developing, in the individual and in the group, wholesome attitudes toward victory and defeat."

"Fourth graders are ready to take the initiative within the group and demonstrate leadership as well as learn to be a good follower. This level is appropriate for the introduction of more complex games that challenge and increase performance abilities and enhance social skills."

Course Objectives

Skills: Participation in cooperative activities and instilling a positive group mentality; contributing to positive group experiences in games; using movements and sport specific skills for team and individual sports; using sequence of movements; balancing on objects; warm-up and cool down exercises; sport specific skills; sport specific strategies; developing fitness goals and plans to achieve them.

Concepts: Examining personal habits for healthiness; connection between food and personal health; practice and conditioning for improved performance; explores opportunities for physical activities in and out of school; role of stretching, warm-up and cool down for physical health; internal and external motivation for success and fitness.

Essential Questions:

- How do you know when you are cooperating?
- What do you do to help a group be successful?
- How do you define success?
- How do people know what you are thinking about &/or feeling?
- Why is it important to listen?
- What are some ways two people can deal with a conflict?
- How do you work with someone who does things differently than you?
- Play hard, play fair, play safely

Activities:

Team Building Activities
Large Group Games
Throwing (Frisbees, footballs, foam balls)
Kicking (Soccer, punting soccer balls & footballs, kickball)
Hitting (scoops and balls, table tennis)
Dribbling (Basketball)
Creative Movement
International Games

Fifth and Sixth Grade PE

Excerpts from the California Physical Education Framework:.

5th Grade

"Fifth-grade students are entering early adolescence and are beginning to experience many physical changes. At this age, it is not uncommon for girls to be taller than boys. Differences in strength and motor skill performance may be attributed to experience and students' practice opportunities. Flexibility continues to decrease, especially in boys. Students continue to manipulate a variety of objects using eye-hand and eye-foot coordination. However, the emphasis now shifts to improving accuracy and distance while efficiently manipulating objects using body parts (e.g., hand, foot) or implements (e.g., racket, bat).

Fifth-graders experience a marked increase in intellectual curiosity. They have a thirst for knowledge and a wide range of interests. They like to experiment and to investigate the world around them. Problem-solving activities and intellectual challenges are appropriate for this age group. They are especially interested in knowing about the human body and how to improve health and performance.

Fifth-graders thrive in a small-group activity in which three to four students interact cooperatively. Students are showing increased control over emotions, taking pride in individual accomplishments, and enjoying their successes and achievements. They are beginning to develop an awareness of individual differences related to gender, cultural heritage, ethnicity, and physical ability, making this an ideal time to teach the positive aspects of diversity and the importance of listening to the ideas of others."

6th Grade

" Students at this stage are able to combine various skills in cooperative activities and give appropriate feedback to others. More independent in thought and action than younger students, they are also more likely to seek out new challenges in individual and group activities. Despite their desire for independence, however, sixth graders are likely to be genuinely interested in helping others."

"Cooperation includes interacting with opponents in competitive activities to facilitate mutual development of skills. Sixth graders can accept and respect the performance of others, regardless of ability level, and are able to interact positively with others to develop friendships and participate in peer coaching activities with a partner."

"Students at this level are ready to combine skills for practice in lead-up games. These activities facilitate the learning of physical skills while allowing for cooperative effort."

"A child's development, which is influenced by heredity, hormones, nutrition, and exercise is also influenced by cultural expectations and gender differences. Students should understand that the achievement of certain levels of physical skill is dependent on all of these factors."

"Students at this stage are able to recognize stylistic differences in performance, develop a more realistic self-image, and form collective attitudes as members of a group. They also begin to value looking good more than ever before as they become more aware of the varying levels of physical development within their peer group."

CCS Course Objectives

Skills: Make positive contributions to group in cooperative activities; recognize the role of games, sports and dance in getting to know and understand people of diverse cultures; using appropriate sequence of movements for specific purposes; balancing and techniques to practice balancing; using sport specific skills in games; participating in cooperative activities and contributing to positive group mentality; proper warm-up , cool down and stretching routines; warm-up, cool down and stretching routines; demonstrate correctly activities designed to improve and maintain muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and cardio-respiratory functioning.

Concepts: Team mentality, offense, defense, internal motivation for personal fitness, examining strategies for success or failure; understanding the functioning of primary muscle groups;

Activities

Team Building Activities
Large Group Games
Ultimate Frisbee/Team Handball
Soccer
Table Tennis
Dance/Creative Movement/Yoga
Basketball
Volleyball
Introduction to Rugby
International Games

Seventh and Eighth Grade PE

Excerpts from the California Physical Education Framework:

7th Grade

"Students have an eagerness to test themselves, both individually and in groups."

"Seventh graders are also able to understand the interrelationship of the health-fitness components in the development of optimum health and thus to select specific exercises for each component."

"Students' growth rates vary considerably during this period of development. Many experience their most rapid growth, and an increasing number show signs of puberty. All need to be aware that they must continue strenuous activity to maintain strength, speed, and endurance as their bodies change."

8th Grade

"At this stage students are able to focus on a common group or team goal over the long term, working together to solve problems during group activities."

"By the end of the eighth grade, students should have experienced a wide variety of activities. Now they can begin to see relationships among sports skills. For example, they may learn the underhand pitch for softball...and transfer that skill to the underhand serve in volleyball..."

"Students learn that growth in height and weight alters the mechanical nature of performance and that motor performance is related to all measures of maturity (chronological, anatomical, and physiological).

"Students are mature enough to recognize the difference between ethical and unethical behavior and appreciate the importance of fair p lay, cooperation, and competition in team games, activities, and sports. Team games and team sports are of great interest and value to eighth graders of both genders because they help satisfy the students' need to feel a sense of belonging to a group."

CCS Course Objectives

Skills: Intermediate & advanced sport-specific skills for individual, dual and team sports; using offensive and defensive strategies in sports; controlled risk-taking (social, emotional and physical); become engaged in activities that provide for challenge, problem solving, decision making and risk taking.

Concepts: Physiological benefits of regular physical activity, basic training principles that improve fitness, proper attitudes towards winning and losing, cardio and respiratory endurance, the role of exercise and nutrition in weight control and body composition; long-term psychological benefits of regular participation in physical activity including self-image and stress reduction, and other physiological and psychological benefits that may result from regular participation in physical activity.

Activities

Team Building Activities
Large Group Games
Ultimate Frisbee/Team Handball
Soccer
Table Tennis
Dance/Creative Movement/Yoga
Basketball
Volleyball
Introduction to Rugby
International Games